Fifty years ago this month, the Soviet Union's attempt to station missiles in Cuba that were capable of attacking the United States set off the most nerve-wracking two weeks of the Cold War. Six months later, sustained civil-rights demonstrations in Birmingham, Ala., gripped the world. And soon, a coup against the South Vietnamese government threatened to drag the U.S. into a civil war in Asia.
These crises have been well-covered by historians, but "Listening In: The Secret White House Recordings of John F. Kennedy," a new collection of President Kennedy's recordings of his private conversations, offers a fascinating glimpse into how decisions in these critical situations were made.
Caroline Kennedy, daughter of the late president, will be in Memphis this week to sign the new book, which she co-authored. (See box.) She recently spoke by phone with Chapter 16.
Question: When did you first find out your father had recorded many of these meetings and conversations?
Caroline Kennedy: I don't remember the "big moment." I think their existence became publicly known in the 1970s — right around the Nixon Watergate time — so I guess it was around then. I was surprised then, but that was a long time ago now.
Q: Do you remember which conversation you listened to first?
A: Not specifically. They were all at the Kennedy library, and batches of them were released every couple of years after the archivists had processed them.
Q: What would you say these tapes help us understand better about the presidency during the Cold War specifically?
A: I think you get a renewed appreciation for how scary the Cold War was. So much time has passed. We look back on it and it doesn't seem (possible) that we really thought that we were going to have a nuclear war with the Russians, but you can see in these tapes that people were legitimately scared — and the military was advocating for it! I think it shows how important it is to have the right kind of leadership and judgment.
Q: If you were recommending any one of these conversations to President Obama, would you pick one from the Cuban Missile Crisis, or would there be another one you would suggest?
A: I think the Cuban Missile Crisis is probably the most interesting and probably would sound really familiar to him. When you look at (it), you think, "Well, look at these options, they all look terrible — how are people figuring their way through this?" And it happened to be a great success and led to the Test Ban Treaty, which was the beginning of detente. It gives you an appreciation for how even things that look bad at the time can turn into opportunities.
Q: Do you think from listening to these tapes, and from your own experience in the years since then, that there has been a shift in the way political leaders interact with each other?
A: I think in the '60s it was much more built on personal relationships. I know that was true for my parents: My father had served in the House and the Senate, and people tended to stay for a long time, and they tended to live there and socialize together, so you hear that they really had relationships across the aisle that were strong. People like my uncle (Senator Edward M. Kennedy) and my mother (Jacqueline Kennedy) used to say that was the biggest change: Now everybody leaves on the weekend to go home to fundraise.
Q: Among the Lyndon Johnson tapes, there's a very popular clip of President Johnson ordering pants from his tailor: a very ordinary, everyday thing, but he's doing it from the Oval Office. Are there conversations of your father doing something similar?
A: We try to give a sense of that by including some of the phone calls that are more informal, like my father talking to the hockey team, or the ones when he's talking to my Uncle Teddy, or talking to my brother and me coming out of the room just as a serious meeting is beginning. They're more lighthearted.
Q: Was there any conversation where you thought, "I cannot believe someone said that"?
A: Some of the military conversations during the Cuban Missile Crisis, how enthusiastic they were about full-out war — it's incredible.
I think the civil-rights conversations were the most emotionally moving to me, listening to Martin Luther King; listening to Bobby (Robert F. Kennedy, Attorney General) laying out the options for Birmingham; listening to my father talking to the groups like the Americans for Democratic Action (a pro-civil rights group founded in the 1940s) and explaining what they were going to do. And this makes me feel very proud of what they did.
The idea here is to inspire the next generation, as my father says (in one of the tapes), to give at least part of their life to public service. I think reading this book gives you a sense of how much he loved it and how rewarding it was for him, so hopefully that will inspire the younger people to want to do the same.
For more about books, visit Chapter16.org, an online publication of Humanities Tennessee.